design_tools

Design Tools

ARIavCAD 2017, a software program for the sizing and location of air valves

A.R.I. has developed a program, which will assist engineers in selecting the most important locations to place their air valves on the pipeline. In addition, it will also specify which model in the A.R.I.series will best suit the applications as well as the most appropriate sizing.

The program, known as ARIavCAD is user friendly and simple to understand and is designed so that the end user can clearly and rapidly define his needs as far as air valves on the pipeline is concerned. This ARIavCAD software contains many refinements and improvements, and provides an analysis for air valve sizing and location for most applications. Additionally, the software can be used in conjunction with applications, such as AutoCAD and Microsoft Excel.

With the new version of ARIavCAD, a simple import operation followed by a click on the mouse, and the entire pipeline profile, with much of the required data, is ready for entry of remaining data and analysis that will determine air valve recommendations by location, model, size and quantity.

The savings in time, cost and effort that this technology offers is considerable and A.R.I. is proud to offer the service of running analyses to our customers.

 

ARIavCAD v.4.0.8, 2017 a software program for the sizing and location of air valves

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ARIavCAD v.4.0.8, 2017 (64bit)

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ARIavCAD v.4.0.8, 2017 (32bit)

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Files are compressed in ZIP format. For extracting the files, you will need WinZip™

AutoCAD Icon Blocks of Air Valves

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AutoCAD Icon Blocks of Check Valves

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Files are compressed in ZIP format. For extracting the files, you will need WinZip™

A.R.I. FLANGE STANDARD TABLE Third edition

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NPS (Nominal Pipe Size)

Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a set of standard pipe sizes used for pressure piping in North America. The same pipe dimensions are used with different names in Europe.

Pipe size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers: a Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) and a schedule (SCH). The relationship of these numbers to the actual pipe dimensions is a bit strange. The NPS is very loosely related to the inside diameter in inches, but only for NPS 1/8 to NPS 12. For NPS 14 and larger, the NPS is equal to the outside diameter (OD) in inches. For a given NPS, the OD stays constant and the wall thickness increases with larger SCH. For a given SCH, the OD increases with increasing NPS while the wall thickness increases or stays constant. Pipe sizes are documented by a number of standards, including API 5L, ANSI/ASME B36.10M in the US, BS 1600 and BS EN 10255 in the United Kingdom and Europe, and ISO 65 internationally. 

For NPS of 5 and larger, the DN is equal to the NPS multiplied by 25 (not 25.4).

The most commonly used schedules today are 40, 80, and 160. There is a commonly held belief that the schedule number is an indicator of the service pressure that the pipe can take. For example, the McGraw Hill Piping Handbook says the schedule number can be converted to pressure by dividing the schedule by 1000 and multiplying by the allowable stress of the material. However, this is not true Pressure rating actually goes down with increasing NPS and constant schedule.

The various standards for pipe schedule are not identical. Frequently some sizes—or even entire schedules—are present in some standards but not others. When different standards do overlap, they usually have the same dimensions. For this reason, the source of the schedules is not distinguished in the table below. Beyond NPS 8, however, there are differing version of schedules 5, 10, 40, and 80. One variation is the presence or absence of an 'S' suffix after the schedule number. Generally, 'S' indicates Stainless Steel Schedule.

Some specifications use pipe schedules called Standard Wall (STD), Extra Strong (XS), and Double Extra Strong (XXS), although these actually belong to an older system called Iron Pipe Size (IPS). The IPS number is the same as the NPS number. 

STD is identical to SCH 40S, and 40S is identical to 40 for NPS 1/8 to NPS 10, inclusive. XS is identical to SCH 80S, and 80S is identical to 80 for NPS 1/8 to NPS 8, inclusive. Different definitions exist for XXS, but it is generally thicker than schedule 160.

8 to NPS 3-1/2

NPS

DN

OD 
(inches)

Wall Thickness (inches)

SCH 5

SCH 10

SCH 30

SCH 40

SCH 80

SCH 120

SCH 160

1/8

6

0.405

0.035

0.049

0.057

0.068

0.095

?

?

3/16

7

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

1/4

8

0.540

0.049

0.065

.073

.088

.119

?

?

3/8

10

0.675

.049

.065

.073

.091

.126

?

?

1/2

15

0.840

.065

.083

.095

.109

.147

.170

.188

5/8

18

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?

3/4

20

1.050

.065

.083

.095

.113

.154

.170

.219

1

25

1.315

.065

.109

.114

.133

.179

.200

.250

1-1/4

32

1.660

.065

.109

.117

.140

.191

.215

.250

1-1/2

40

1.900

.065

.109

.125

.145

.200

.225

.281

2

50

2.375

.065

.109

?

.154

.218

.250

.344

2-1/2

65

2.875

.083

.120

?

.203

.276

.300

.375

3

80

3.500

.083

.120

?

.216

.300

.350

.438

3-1/2

90

4.000

.083

.120

?

.226

.318

?

?

NPS 4 to NPS 8

NPS

DN

OD (inches)

Wall Thickness (inches)

SCH 5

SCH 10

SCH 20

SCH 30

SCH 40

SCH 60

SCH 80

SCH 100

SCH 120

SCH 140

SCH 160

4

100

4.500

.083

.120

?

?

.237

.281

.337

?

.437

?

.531

4-1/2

115

5.000

?

?

?

?

.247

?

.355

?

?

?

?

5

125

5.563

.109

.134

?

?

.258

?

.375

?

.500

?

.625

6

150

6.625

.109

.134

?

?

.280

?

.432

?

.562

?

.719

8

200

8.625

.109

.148

.250

.277

.322

.406

.500

.593

.718

.812

.906

NPS 10 to NPS 24

NPS

DN

OD 
(inches)

Wall Thickness (inches)

SCH 5s

SCH 5

SCH 10s

SCH 10

SCH 20

SCH 30

SCH 40s

SCH 40

10

250

10.75

.134

.134

.165

.165

.250

.307

.365

.365

12

300

12.75

.156

.165

.180

.180

.250

.330

.375

.406

14

350

14.00

.156

 

.188

.250

.312

.375

.375

.437

16

400

16.00

.165

 

.188

.250

.312

.375

.375

.500

18

450

18.00

.165

 

.188

.250

.312

.437

.375

.562

20

500

20.00

.188

 

.218

.250

.375

.500

.375

.593

24

600

24.00

.218

 

.250

.250

.375

.562

.375

.687

NPS 10 to NPS 24 (Continue)

NPS

DN

OD 
(inches)

Wall Thickness (inches)

SCH 60

SCH 80s

SCH 80s

SCH 80

SCH 100

SCH 120

SCH 140

SCH 160

10

250

10.75

.500

.500

.500

.593

.718

.843

1.000

1.125

12

300

12.75

.500

.500

.500

.687

.843

1.000

1.125

1.312

14

350

14.00

.593

.500

.500

.750

.937

1.093

1.250

1.406

16

400

16.00

.656

.500

.500

.843

1.031

1.218

1.437

1.593

18

450

18.00

.750

.500

.500

.937

1.156

1.375

1.562

1.781

20

500

20.00

.812

.500

.500

1.031

1.280

1.500

1.750

1.968

24

600

24.00

.968

.500

.500

1.218

1.531

1.812

2.062

2.343


download type pdfDownload NPS file

 

NPT (National Pipe Thread)

National Pipe Thread is a U.S. standard for tapered (NPT) or straight (NPS) threads used to join pipes and fittings. ANSI/ASME standard B1.20.1 covers threads of 60-degree form with flat crests and roots in sizes from ¹⁄16 inch to 24 inch Nominal Pipe Size. The taper rate for all NPT threads is ¹⁄16 (³⁄₄inch per foot) measured by the change of diameter (of the pipe thread) over distance. The taper divided by a center line yields an angle 1° 47' 24" or 1.7899° as measured from the center axis.

Commonly-used sizes are ¹⁄8, ¹⁄4, ³⁄8, ¹⁄2, ³⁄4, 1, 1 ¹⁄4, 1 ¹⁄2, and 2 inch, appearing on pipe and fittings by most U.S. suppliers. Smaller sizes than those listed are occasionally used for compressed air. Larger sizes are used less frequently because other methods of joining are more practical at 3 inches and above in most applications.

Nominal Pipe Size is loosely related to the inside diameter of schedule 40 pipe. Because of the pipe wall thickness, the actual diameter of the threads is larger than the NPS, considerably so for small NPS. Other schedules of pipe have different wall thickness but the OD (outer diameter) and thread profile remain the same, so the inside diameter of the pipe is therefore different from the nominal diameter.

Threaded pipes can provide an effective seal for pipes transporting liquids, gases, steam, and hydraulic fluid. These threads are now used in materials other than steel and brass, including PVC, nylon, bronze and cast iron.

The taper on NPT threads allows them to form a seal when torqued as the flanks of the threads compress against each other, as opposed to straight thread fittings or compression fittings in which the threads merely hold the pieces together and do not provide the seal. However a clearance remains between the crests and roots of the threads, resulting in a leakage around this spiral. This means that NPT fittings must be made leak free with the aid of thread seal tape or a thread sealant compound. (The use of tape or sealant will also help to limit corrosion on the threads, which can make future disassembly nearly impossible.)

There is also a semi-compatible variant called NPTF or Dryseal, designed to provide a more leak-free seal without the use of teflon tape or other sealant compound. NPTF threads are the same basic shape but with crest and root heights adjusted for an interference fit, eliminating the spiral leakage path.

Sometimes NPT threads are referred to as MPT (Male Pipe Thread), MNPT, or NPT(M) for male (external) threads and FPT (Female Pipe Thread), FNPT, or NPT(F) for female (internal) threads. An equivalent designation is MIP (Male iron pipe) and FIP (Female iron pipe).

Pipe thread sizes

Nominal
NPT Size

Outer
Diameter

Threads
per inch

Pitch
of Thread

1/16"

0.3125"

27

0.03704

1/8 "

0.405"

27

0.03704

1/4 "

0.540"

18

0.05556

3/8 "

0.675"

18

0.05556

1/2 "

0.840"

14

0.07143

3/4 "

1.050"

14

0.07143

1 "

1.315"

11½

0.08696

1¼ "

1.660"

11½

0.08696

1½ "

1.900"

11½

0.08696

2 "

2.375"

11½

0.08696

2½ "

2.875"

8

0.12500

3 "

3.500"

8

0.12500

4 "

4.500"

8

0.12500

5 "

5.563"

8

0.12500

6 "

6.625"

8

0.12500

10 "

10.750"

8

0.12500

12 "

12.750"

8

0.12500

14 " OD

14 "

8

0.12500

16 " OD

16 "

8

0.12500

18 " OD

18 "

8

0.12500

20 " OD

20 "

8

0.12500

24 " OD

24 "

8

0.12500

 download type pdfDownload NPT file

 

BSPT (British Standard Pipe Thread)

The British standard pipe thread (BSP thread) is a family of standard screw thread types that has been adopted internationally for interconnecting and sealing pipe ends by mating an external (male) with an internal (female) thread.

Types

Two types of threads are distinguished:

  • Parallel threads, which have a constant diameter.(G)

  • Taper threads, whose diameter increases or decreases along the length of the thread.(R)

They can be combined into two types of joints:

  • Jointing threads: These are pipe threads for joints made pressure-tight by the mating of the threads. They always use a taper external thread, but can have either parallel or taper internal threads. (In Continental Europe, taper internal pipe threads are not commonly used.)

  • Longscrew threads: These are parallel pipe threads used where a pressure-tight joint is achieved by the compression of a soft material (gasket) on to the surface of the external thread by tightening a backnut against a socket.

Threadform

For both the taper and the parallel pipe threads, the Whitworth thread form is used, which has the following characteristics:

  • symmetrical V-thread in which the angle between the flanks is 55° (measured in an axial plane)

  • one-sixth of this sharp V is truncated at the top and the bottom

  • the threads are rounded equally at crests and roots by circular arclend tangentially with the flanks

  • the theoretical depth of the thread is therefore 0.64times the nominal pitch the relation between

Pipe thread sizes

A list of 15 thread sizes are defined by the standards, ranging from 1/16 to 6. The size number was originally based on the inner diameter measured in inches (25.4 mm) of a steel tube for which the thread was intended, but is in the modern metric version of the standard simply a size number.

Thread
size

Threads
per inch

Pitch
[mm]

Major diameter
of the thread

Gauge
length
[mm]

Corresponding pipe

[mm]

[in]

DN

OD
[mm]

OD
[in]

Thick-
ness
[mm]

1/16

28

0.907

7.723

0.304

4

 

 

 

 

1/8

28

0.907

9.728

0.383

4

6

10.2

0.40

2

1/4

19

1.337

13.157

0.518

6

8

13.5

0.53

2.3

3/8

19

1.337

16.662

0.656

6.4

10

17.2

0.68

2.3

1/2

14

1.814

20.995

0.825

8.2

15

21.3

0.84

2.6

3/4

14

1.814

26.441

1.041

9.5

20

26.9

1.06

2.6

1

11

2.309

33.249

1.309

10.4

25

33.7

1.33

3.2

11

2.309

41.910

1.650

12.7

32

42.4

1.67

3.2

11

2.309

47.803

1.882

12.7

40

48.3

1.90

3.2

2

11

2.309

59.614

2.347

15.9

50

60.3

2.37

3.6

11

2.309

75.184

2.960

17.5

65

76.1

3.00

3.6

3

11

2.309

87.884

3.460

20.6

80

88.9

3.50

4

4

11

2.309

113.030

4.450

25.5

100

114.3

4.50

4.5

5

11

2.309

138.430

5.450

28.6

125

139.7

5.50

5

6

11

2.309

163.830

6.450

28.6

150

165.1

6.50

5

The major diameter listed is the outer diameter of the external thread. For a taper thread, it is the diameter at the "gauge length" from the small end of the thread. The taper is "1 to 16", meaning that for each 16 mm increase in the distance from the end, the diameter increases by 1 mm.

Pipe thread designations

These standard pipe threads are formally referred to by the following sequence of blocks:

  • the words "Pipe thread"

  • the document number of the standard (e.g., "ISO 7" or "EN 10226")

  • the symbol for the pipe thread type:

    • G = external+internal parallel (ISO 228)

    • R = external taper (ISO 7)

    • Rp = internal parallel (ISO 7)

    • Rc = internal taper (ISO 7)

  • the thread size

Threads are normally right-hand. For left-hand threads, the letters "LH" are appended.
Example: Pipe thread EN 10226 Rp 2 1/2


download type pdfDownload BSPT file

 

Dimensions

Flows

1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.)
1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.)
1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.)
1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.)
1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.)
1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.)
1 Cubic Ft. per Second
1 Liter per Second
1 Acre Inch per Hour
1 Acre Foot per Day
1,000,000 Gallons per Day
1 Cubic Ft. per Second

.002228 cu. ft./Second
.13368 cu. ft./Minute
8.0208 cu. ft./Hour
.06309 Liters/Second
3.78533 Liters/Minute
.0044192 Acre Ft./24 Hrs.
448.83 GPM
15.85 GPM
452.57 GPM
226.3 GPM
694.4 GPM
.992 Acre Inches/Hr.

 

Volume

1728 Cubic Inches
231 Cubic Inches
27 Cubic Feet
1 Cubic Foot
1 Cubic Yard
16 Drams
32 Ounces
4 Quarts
1 Gallon
1 Gallon
1 Gallon
27.154 Gallons
325,851 Gallons
1,000,000 Gallons
1 Acre Foot
Volume of a Cube
Volume of a Pyramid
Volume of a Sphere

1 Cubic Foot
1 Gallon
1 Cubic Yard
7.48052 Gallons (U.S.)
202 Gallons (U.S.)
1 Ounce
1 Quart
1 Gallon
3.785 Liters
.00379 Cubic Meters
.833 Imperial Gallon
1 Acre Inch
1 Acre Foot
3.0689 Acre Feet
43,560 Cubic Feet
Area of Base x Height
1/3 Area of Base x Height
Diameter Cubed x .5236

 

Weight of 100' of pipe filled with water

Pipe Size

Plastic (125#)

Iron (Sch 40)

1"
1¼"
1½"
2"

57 lbs.
97 lbs.
130 lbs.
217 lbs.

206 lbs.
293 lbs.
360 lbs.
512 lbs.

 

Comparing Flow rate to Velocity
(in type 'L' copper)

Size (Nom)

@ 3.0'/Second

@ 3.5'/Second

Suggested Max.
Flow Rate

½"
¾"
1"
1¼"
1½"
2"

2.2 gpm
4.5 gpm
7.5 gpm
12.0 gpm
17.0 gpm
29.0 gpm

2.64 gpm
5.40 gpm
9.00 gpm
14.40 gpm
20.40 gpm
34.80 gpm

2.2 gpm
4.8 gpm
9.0 gpm
14.4 gpm
20.4 gpm
34.8 gpm

 

Head Loss per 100' - Type 'L' Copper Tubing

Size

Velocity (FPS)

GPM

Head Loss

½"
¾"
1"
1¼"
1½"
2"
2½"
3"
4"

5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
8

3.64
7.54
15.43
23.50
38.81
67.52
119.00
170.00
299.00

10.12
6.59
7.10
5.30
6.03
4.17
4.35
3.54
2.43

 

Head Loss per 100' - Sch.40 PVC 

½" 

GPM
Head Loss 

½
0.40' 

1
1.28' 


2.58' 

2
4.24' 


6.25' 

3
8.59' 


11.25' 

4
14.22' 

5
21.07' 

 

¾" 

GPM
Head Loss 

1
0.35' 

2
1.16' 

3
2.34' 

4
3.86'

5
5.71' 

6
7.86' 

7
10.32' 

8
13.07'

9
16.10'

10
19.41'

1"

GPM
Head Loss

2
0.35'

3
0.70'

4
1.14'

5
1.69'

6
2.32'

7
3.04'

8
3.85'

9
4.74'

10
5.71'

12
7.88'

1¼"

GPM
Head Loss

5
0.51'

6
0.70'

7
0.91'

8
1.15'

9
1.42'

10
1.71'

12
2.35'

15
3.49'

20
5.81'

25
8.65'

1½"

GPM
Head Loss

8
0.55'

9
0.67'

10
0.81'

12
1.12'

15
1.65'

20
2.75'

25
4.09'

30
5.65'

35
7.45'

40
9.45'

2"

GPM
Head Loss

16
0.55'

18
0.68'

20
0.82'

25
1.22'

30
1.68'

35
2.21'

40
2.80'

45
3.46'

50
4.17'

60
5.79'

2½"

GPM
Head Loss

35
0.88'

40
1.12'

45
1.38'

50
1.66'

60
2.30'

70
3.03'

80
3.85'

90
4.75'

100
5.74'

110
6.82'

3"

GPM
Head Loss

50
0.63'

60
0.87'

70
1.15'

80
1.45'

90
1.80'

100
2.17'

110
2.57'

120
3.01'

130
3.47'

140
3.97'

The above is free as a courtesy - accuracy is not guaranteed.

download type pdfDownload Dimensions file